There is a lack of national standards for the mand

  • Detail

The State Administration of work safety has forced the promotion of mining lifesaving cabins. There is a lack of national standards

it has been a week since the flooding accident occurred in jilichong Xinjing coal mine, Sandu Town, Leiyang City, Hunan Province, and all the trapped people have not yet risen to the well. People care, will miracles happen

referring to the "miracle" in the mine disaster, many people still remember the rescue capsule in the copper mine disaster in Chile in August, 2010. At that time, Chilean miners took refuge in the life capsule and were rescued, which was known as "the victory of one country". Since then, the head of the State Administration of work safety has stressed on many occasions that the construction of the emergency shelter system represented by the life capsule should be strengthened

according to the regulations of the State Administration of work safety in 2010, by the end of June 2013, all coal mines should complete the construction and improvement of the underground safety refuge system, and the mines that have not been completed within the time limit will be ordered to stop production for rectification. Mobile rescue capsule and fixed refuge chamber are the core of emergency refuge system

the three-year deadline has entered the countdown. However, at present, among the more than 100 survival capsule enterprises in the market, only more than 20 have obtained the national mining safety mark (hereinafter referred to as "safety mark") and the panel price may rise in an all-round way. There are more than 13000 mines in the country, and 3801 mines have been built or are in the process of building a risk avoidance system

how will the miracle story of the survival capsule be interpreted

the rescue miracle created by the lifeboat

ordinary Chinese people know the word lifeboat, most of which began in 2010

in August 2010, a mining accident occurred at the San Jose copper mine in Chile. 17 days after the rescue, a note saying "33 of us are in the shelter, and we are still alive" was passed out from 688 meters underground. On October 13, the 33 miners rose one after another, and the 69 day rescue ended. The whole country of Chile is jubilant. This miracle of mine rescue is known as "the victory of one country"

the refuge of Chilean miners, a capsule like lifesaving capsule named "phoenix", was later sent to the Chile Pavilion of the Shanghai WorldExpo. Looking at this inconspicuous and even slightly rusty iron guy, Chinese audiences often ask a question, "why does Chile have something, but China does not?"

on October 16, 2010, a gas accident occurred in Henan Pingyu coal and power company on the third day after the miners in Chile rose to the well. The rescue ended on October 19, killing 37 people. This deepened people's previous doubts

at the Henan rescue site, Luo Lin, then director of the State Administration of work safety, repeatedly stressed the need to speed up the compulsory implementation of advanced equipment such as underground lifesaving cabins and emergency shelters, and to complete them within a time limit

in fact, as early as July 27 before the Chilean mine disaster, the State Council issued the "Notice of the State Council on Further Strengthening the work safety of enterprises" (Document No. 23), which clearly required that all coal mines should install risk aversion facilities before 2013. Mines that fail to complete within the time limit will be ordered to stop production for rectification

it is difficult to distinguish between the tough policy and the story of Chile, which will stimulate the development of the domestic survival capsule market more. However, the domestic survival Capsule Market has developed rapidly since 2010 from the experimental parameter control part on the right:

25 Our company is responsible for providing users with after-sales value-added services such as technology upgrading and transformation at preferential prices all their lives. From the end of 2010 to the beginning of 2011, enterprises and mines have constantly claimed to have overcome the problem that the research and development of life-saving capsules is not as expensive as carbon nanotubes. From Henan to Shanxi and then to Shandong, a number of "China's first" life-saving capsules have emerged

there are different backgrounds of enterprises entering the research, development and production of lifesaving cabins, some of which produce instruments and meters, some of which produce mining appliances, and some of which were originally engaged in real estate development, private hospitals, communication equipment and even cultural industries

the sale method of the lifeboat is different. Some manufacturers set prices according to the model and firmness. Different steel beam densities and designs have different prices; Some manufacturers sell the price according to the number of people that the lifeboat can carry, "1.2 million yuan for six people, 200000 yuan more for each additional person". The price of most survival cabins is between 1million yuan and 3million yuan

in April, 2011, Shandong mining machinery announced that it would produce lifesaving cabins. In its announcement, it announced that the construction period was one year. After completion and production, it was estimated that the annual increased sales revenue was 292million yuan, and the total normal annual profit was 58.65 million yuan

in the middle of 2011, there were only dozens of enterprises engaged in the production and R & D of lifesaving capsules. At the beginning of 2012, China Youth Daily interviewed Chang Cheng, the manager in charge of the sales of underground safety systems in an exhibition company in Beijing, and learned that there were nearly 200 enterprises engaged in the R & D and production of underground lifesaving capsules on the market at that time

Chang Cheng also said that at the beginning of 2012, only six enterprises obtained safety standards. How can enterprises that have not obtained safety standards explain and promote their products? A salesperson of a Shandong enterprise told this newspaper that his product was "absolutely reliable" and that "the materials have been declared and are being reviewed". A company in Liaoning said, "there are very few safety standards certification in the market. We mainly rely on pre-sale, that is, we sign an intention contract first, and when we sign the safety standards, customers can buy them directionally." Another salesman explained that it is troublesome to obtain safety standard certification, "because every part needs certification, it is very slow and difficult."

at present, there is no national standard

at present, most of the life-saving cabins on the market are called "underground life-saving cabins", "mining life-saving cabins" or "movable life-saving cabins", which are mostly made of metal. Due to the limited wellhead space, most of these life-saving cabins are 60 cm ~ 120 cm in length, which are transported to the underground in sections for reassembly. After assembly, they look like a train carriage

Dr. Wang Sheng, who is engaged in the research of the life-saving capsule at Beijing University of science and technology, said that once an accident occurs in the mine, the wind and power may be cut off under the mine. The miners are often several kilometers, or even more than ten kilometers, away from the wellhead. Relying on the self rescuer they carry, they can only breathe for 30 to 45 minutes, and it is almost impossible to reach the wellhead, the shaft lift, the underground life-saving capsule or the refuge chamber, It can provide a safe confined space for miners who cannot evacuate in time after the accident, actively transmit underground information through communication equipment, and guide external rescue

according to this goal, the life capsule should not only be strong and airtight, but also be able to withstand explosion, heat preservation and dehumidification, and ensure communication. More importantly, the life capsule should be able to move with the speed of miners' forward excavation, so as to ensure that once a mine disaster occurs, miners can immediately escape

Jin longzhe, a professor at Beijing University of science and technology, has repeatedly experimented on this: put four subjects into the experimental cabin of the life-saving cabin, the temperature in the cabin will rise rapidly, and the humidity will also increase. After 8 hours, people will be sweating, and there are drops of water on the ceiling, so the problem of damp and heat is difficult to solve; In addition, if the cabin door is closed for more than 6 hours, the carbon monoxide in the cabin will exceed the standard, and people will be in danger inside; Gas explosion may occur underground, but the welding of the rescue cabin is difficult to bear the high pressure of explosion, and it is best to fix it in an area that is not easy to explode

the person in charge of an enterprise engaged in instrument research and development in Beijing said that they cooperated with the Department that has been engaged in confined space research for a long time, and it was not difficult to solve the problems of confined space and communication. When they switched to the research and development of lifesaving capsule from the end of 2010, they found that the most difficult thing to overcome was the overall movement

in the underground, the miners' heading face continues to advance, and the iron "carriage" weighing several tons should also follow. The underground road surface is not like the flat road on the ground. It is not realistic to install wheels on the "carriage". Some of the movable lifepods in the United States are equipped with skids, but China has no such design at present

the movable lifesaving cabin produced by this enterprise adopts the split moving mode: each time it moves, the overall lifesaving cabin must be broken into several sections, and then each section is transported forward to the vicinity of the miners for reassembly. "Every time we separate, the consumption of human, material and financial resources is huge, but it is not practical." The person in charge said frankly

there are many countries in the world that have developed lifesaving capsules. A professional paper published in August 2009 introduced the development of risk aversion facilities in the United States

the article writes: as a large coal producing country, the underground coal mines in the United States often use cement blocks to build refuge separation walls, and hang and bind the fire-resistant and flame-retardant wind barrier thick cloth or plastic screen on the roof and roadway side to form an isolation space for miners trapped after the accident to escape and wait for rescue. This traditional way of avoiding danger underground has been used for more than a century. In 2006, the death toll of coal mines in the United States reached 47, the highest since 1995. In 2007, the death toll of coal mines in the United States was still 33. At the beginning of 2008, a report submitted by the National Institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) to the U.S. Congress pointed out that the backward underground refuge methods were not enough to protect the lives of trapped miners after underground accidents. The development and production of refuge cabins used in coal mines is an important work to ensure the life safety of coal miners and achieve a good safety record in the coal industry. Accordingly, the U.S. Congress asked the U.S. mine safety and Health Administration (MSHA) to formulate a specification for coal mine shelter at the end of 2008. The article also introduces how the three major manufacturers of lifebuoys develop and solve problems

at present, there is no national standard for the production of life capsule in China. For technical difficulties that are difficult to overcome, there is no recognized standard method in the industry. A technician said that the above experiments were all "free play" by manufacturers according to some general regulations of different departments of the country

the effect is unknown, and whether it should be enforced

some coal mines are not enthusiastic about the underground lifesaving capsule, which is unknown, expensive and enforced

a miner from a large state-owned mine in Henan told this newspaper that the underground rescue capsule did play a great role in the Chilean mine disaster, but in two mine disasters in the United States since then, the underground rescue capsule did not play a role. Theoretically, the survival capsule can be continuously advanced with the excavation of the coal mining face, but it can hardly be implemented in practice. In some mining faces with small space, bulky and huge cabins may also block the ventilation and escape routes underground

Jin longzhe, who has long been engaged in the research of the rescue capsule, also found that even the mines that bought the underground rescue capsule equipment did not have the enthusiasm to use it, and they used it more as a decoration. "I have talked about more than 20 issues, and the audience are all leaders above the rescue team leader and the safety supervision director. Even these front-line senior personnel have a vague understanding of the use of the rescue capsule, and the miners don't understand it."

after the water flooding accident in Leiyang coal mine, the State Administration of work safety announced on its station that Leiyang, Hunan, suffered from frequent mining accidents. A local industry insider told that most of the geological mines are small coal mines with limited output value, "it will be excavated in a few years", and there is no incentive to buy expensive underground lifesaving cabins at all

in the past half a year, the market of lifeboat has also changed. Chang Cheng told this newspaper that at present, there are more than 140 enterprises producing lifesaving cabins, and more than 20 enterprises have obtained safety standard certification. "Some enterprises quit because the market was not good."

the person in charge surnamed Zhang of a company in Yantai told this newspaper that they have developed the lifesaving capsule since November 2010. At present, they have "overcome all technical difficulties" and "the overall movement is no problem". At present, there is no safety standard and they are applying for it. "In my understanding, the life capsule is like a rescue capsule equipped on a ship

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI